“There is not a shred of evidence that an exploration of the past is necessary for treating a client's contemporary problems or emotional difficulties,” said John Norcross, a psychology professor at Pennsylvania University, and author of a study into 20 years of psycho-analytical trends. He said that fewer than 1 per cent of America's 20 million therapy patients now receive Freudian or other long-term treatments that explore 'unconscious conflicts' from the past."

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